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Safety & Environmental Engineering!


EPC365 prepares the Safety & Environmental Plan for the design, construction and operation of the facilities.  This will be in accordance with specifications laid down in recognized International standards such as NFPA and Company standards. Our Safety engineering services will include but not be limited to the following:

  • Issue of Safety & Environmental Concept 
  • Active & Passive Fire protection and Fire & Gas detection philosophy.
  • Layout drawings for firefighting systems
  • Layout drawings for fire & gas detection systems​
  • P&ID for fire water and foam systems
  • Block Flow Diagram for fire & gas detection systems
  • Cause and effect diagram of Fire & Gas detection systems
  • Fireproofing zone maps
  • Hazardous equipment identification list
  • Data sheets for firefighting equipment
  • FW hydraulic calculation and surge analysis
  • Requests for Quotation packages for firefighting equipment
  • Incorporate unique supplier's requirements in the final design and engineering.
  • ​Noise Study and & Environmental Concept
  • Participate in P&ID, Plot Plan and 3D model review

Fire zone

The facilities will be divided into fire zones. "Fire zones are areas within the installation where equipment are grouped by nature and/or by homogeneous level of risk attached to them. The partition into fire zones is such that the consequences of a fire, a flammable gas leak or an explosion corresponding to the credible event likely to occur in the concerned fire zone shall not impact other fire zones to an extent where their integrity could be put at risk." The credible event will be determined to define the fire zones. 

Separate fire zones will be created in order to separate risks and limit the probability of escalation.
A Fire zone is defined physically by its limits and hydrocarbon inventory inside the zone. It shall be possible to isolate completely the hydrocarbon inventory within a single fire zone by Emergency Shutdown Valves (ESDVs) and depressurise it by Emergency Depressurisation valves (BDVs). Thus a fire will initially be contained within the affected zone due to its fire detection, ESD, emergency blowdown and fixed fire fighting system supports; consequences to any other fire zone will also be reduced.


Restricted Area

The restricted area is the area within the boundaries of the installation, which is affected either permanently, by normal operation of the facility, or exceptionally, by the consequences of an emergency situation caused by a major failure.As a consequence, it is required to have the control, either automatically through appropriate systems or manually by means of alarms and signals, of all possible sources of ignition, including vehicles, likely to be present in the restricted area. The level of risks prevailing in the restricted area is not compatible with the presence, even temporary, of public. The restricted area is therefore normally required to be materialised by a security fence. Facilities that are not under the control of Company are not sited in the Restricted Area.The restricted area concept is based on an exceptional (but credible) major leak and consequently the probability of occurrence of the events, which define the Restricted Area, is far below the probability of the events which define the hazardous areas. Moreover, the Restricted Area generated by a hydrocarbon unit is far greater than the hazardous area defined by the codes. The main requirements for the restricted area are that:

  • All potential ignition sources located in the restricted area, including equipment certified for use in Zone 2 hazardous area, shall be capable of suppression by the operator.
  • Flare tips, and any facilities and areas where the operator has no control over ignition, shall be sited such that the radiation levels in the restricted area are within the limits defined.
  • Access to buildings within the restricted area shall be protected by air locks equipped with flammable gas detectors.
  • Any air combustion intakes and HVAC air intakes for equipment within the restricted area shall be equipped with gas detectors.


Impacted area

The Impacted Area is the area that extends beyond the boundaries of the installation but which is nevertheless affected up to some extent either permanently by normal operation of the facility (noise, radiation, etc.) or exceptionally by the consequences of an emergency situation caused by a major failure.
The Impacted Area is not under the control of Company but shall be agreed with local authorities for instance to limit construction of buildings, in particular permanent settlements, or operation of transportation means open to public. During design stage, impacted area will be defined.


Drainage Philosophy

Drainage system is composed of open drain and closed drain.
The purpose of the drain system is to collect and convey drainage streams to an appropriate closed drain drum in such a way as to protect personnel, plant and equipment, and to avoid environmental pollution.


Closed Drain

The closed drain will be used for draining process equipment and lines for maintenance purposes. Their use for routine operational purposes will be forbidden.
The piping upstream of the closed drain drum shall be rated to match the highest design pressure of the process facilities to which it is connected. Closed drain system shall be segregated from Open drain system to prevent hydrocarbons from a classified area being transmitted to a non-classified area.


Open Drain 
Open drain systems shall provide the means of safely removing residual process and washdown fluids, rain water and deluge water.
A fundamental safety consideration is that a drain system must not provide a route for migration of flammable liquids or vapours from one hazardous area to another, or to nonhazardous areas. Based on this consideration, open drains are segregated into hazardous and non-hazardous systems. Hazardous open drains shall be provided for water collected underneath process equipment and leaks from process bunded area or drip pans. Non-hazardous open drains shall be provided for water collected from utility areas and other nonhazardous locations.


Emergency Power

The Emergency Power System on the facilities shall, so far as reasonably practicable: 

  • Provide a reliable and secure source of power to the safety and emergency systems to enable them to operate as required during an emergency; 
  • Provide a no break power supply to safety and emergency systems if temporary loss of power might cause loss of control or uncontrolled shutdown; 
  • Ensure that safety and emergency systems required to operate to achieve safe muster are available for the required period.

The EDG will be also used for the black start.


Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) 

The purpose of the uninterruptible power supply ensures that, in the event of a main power supply loss, there is a continuous power supply to emergency users until the emergency generator can be started. Additionally, if the emergency generator fails to start or fails while running, the UPS can supply power to safety critical equipment. In this case, the UPS shall have adequate autonomy to control the complete depressurisation. Typical essential consumers of the UPS system will include as a minimum:

  • Control Systems, including ICSS and package UCP’s,
  • Emergency lighting,
  • Telecommunications Systems,
  • Fire and gas detection and fire protection and control system,
  • General Alarm Systems,
  • Shutdown System and Depressurisation systems,
  • Emergency generation and fire pump control systems,
  • Anti-Intrusion System.

​​

Communication Systems

The purpose of communication systems is:

  • To have an efficient internal communication, audible an visual where necessary, for personnel in normal and emergency operations, to alert personnel in case of problems,
  • To supply communication means for escape, evacuation and rescue,
  • To keep inform personnel during potential hazardous operations,
  • To have an external communication between installations,
  • To have external communication with emergency evacuation means such as helicopters/planes.

​The communication means consists in a combination, but not necessarily limited to the following:

  • Telephones,
  • UHF/VHF radios,
  • VHF Aero,
  • Internal video system,
  • PAGA, POB system
  • External communications.

Communications means and the whole system of alert to personnel shall remain active in case of an emergency, without creation of additional hazards.


Escape, Evacuation and Rescue (EER)

Escape, Evacuation and Rescue (EER) facilities will be designed for the complete facilities lifetime, including periods of:

  • Construction, hook-up, pre-commissioning and start-up,
  • Drilling, simultaneous operations on wells and production, 
  • Scheduled maintenance
  • Routine operations. 

The objectives for Escape, Evacuation and Rescue are as follows:

  • To maintain the safety of all personnel when they move to another location to avoid the effects of a hazardous event,
  • To provide a safe refuge (muster area) on the installation for as long as required for a controlled evacuation of the installation,
  • To facilitate rescue of injured personnel. ​​


Environmental Concept

The purpose of Environmental Concept is to summarize how environmental and social issues have been addressed within the design. The document addresses environmental issues such as liquid wastes, atmospheric emission which impact among the circumstances including facilities. The document will be developed during design stage.


Noise Study
The noise study will be performed and will include: 

  • An identification of noise sources based on the Equipment list and plot plan listed in references,
  • A simulation of identified noise sources in order to obtain predicted noise levels on a noise map,
  • A verification that predicted noise levels are in accordance with acceptance limits,
  • Recommendations for areas where predicted sound levels exceed the acceptance limits, i.e. to reduce the levels to what would be considered acceptable, or if not possible, these areas shall be classified as noise restricted areas, i.e. where ear protection must be worn. Acceptance limits will be in accordance with: local regulation and company specification.


P&ID Review

This is a systematic review of the P&ID Diagrams to ensure engineering integrity by checking consistency with related documents and by reviewing control and safety systems, operability, and maintainability. The review is performed, under the supervision of the Engineering Manager, by the Lead Process Engineer with the assistance of the Piping and Instrumentation Lead Engineer. 


Plot Plan/Layout Review

This review covers the layout of equipment and structures to identify hazards and to verify the safety distances, main escape routes, design simplicity, operability, and ease of construction and maintenance. This review also covers Construction and Installation Assurance (Constructability).The information on the Plot Plan is checked for both, conformance to the Project requirements and consistency, prior to releasing the Plot Plan to the various engineering disciplines for the development of the detailed design.The review is performed, under the supervision of the Engineering Manager, by the Project Engineers, Lead Process Engineer and Lead Piping Engineer, with the support of of disciplines, as required. An Action List, specifying all comments and recommendations, will be prepared and followed up on to ensure that all comments are incorporated in the design.


3D Model Review

This is a detailed review of the piping arrangements to identify potential hazards and to verify safety distances, design simplicity, interference with other facilities, operability, constructability, access, emergency vehicle maneuverability, escape route and maintainability. The review is performed, under the supervision of the Engineering Manager, by the Project Engineers and Lead Piping Engineer with the support of the other disciplines as required.  An Action List, specifying all comments and recommendations, will be prepared and followed up to ensure that all comments are incorporated in the design.


 Safety Dossier

Safety Dossier is subject to define the contents of the documents for the project facilities. Safety Dossier will be developed during design stage and finally compiled at project completion forming part of the projects Safety Management documentation. 

​​Safety & Environmental Concept

The purpose of Safety Concept is to describe the systems, equipment and procedures necessary to protect against the major hazards which could lead to injury to personnel, damage to facilities, loss of production or pollution of the environment, and to prescribe the safety & Environmental measures. This document will be developed during design stage. ​

Passive Fire Protection
The design for Passive Fire Protection is to follow the results of Fire and Explosion Risk Analysis (FERA) and Restricted and Impacted Areas for minimizing space requirement. Consequently, the zone for Passive Fire Proofing will be defined on the plant facilities which apply the appropriate types and ratings of structural barriers and PFP products.  
PMC oilPro will meet PFP requirements related to fire/blast walls, structural steel, vessels, critical work and associated valves and fittings for protection against process hydrocarbon fires originating within enclosed areas 


Active Fire Protection

Active Fire Protection describes the design and functionality of fire protection systems including the fire water deluge and foam design requirements necessary for the full protection of the oil and gas handling / processing areas of the installation. Active Fire Protection systems for project facilities are based on the use of:

  • Fire water pumps and jockey pumps feeding permanently pressurized firewater ring main and distribution network
  • Fire water tanks
  • Fire water hydrants and monitors
  • Fire water hose reels
  • Fixed water / foam deluge systems
  • Total flooding systems 
  • Extinguishers

During the design stage, the deliverables for AFP such as philosophy, fire water demand calculation, hydraulic calculation, P&ID for fire water, the design dossier for specification and layout drawing will be conducted, prepared and submitted to Company.


Fire and Gas Detection

The objective of the Fire and Gas Detection system is to alert personnel in case of major failure such as flammable gas cloud, toxic gas cloud or fire and to reduce escalation by the initiation of automatic or manual actions. During the design stage, the following studies will be carried out:​

  • Fire and Gas study for optimizing fire and gas detectors’ location by 3D model and dispersion modeling taking into consideration the congestion
  • Issue and update of Fire and gas layout, specification, Cause and Effect Matrix, Fire and Gas Logic Diagram etc.


Safety Shutdown System

The main purposes of Safety Shutdown Systems are as follows:

  • To limit the loss of containment, by isolating hydrocarbon production and processing equipment via Emergency Shut-Down Valves (ESDVs) or Process Shut-Down valves(SDVs),
  • To execute automatically a set of remedial actions, upon manual or automatic triggering,

  • To prevent ignition by elimination of potential sources of ignition,
  • To reduce flammable or toxic inventory by depressurisation through the EDP system, when appropriate,
  • To isolate energy input to the plant.

During the design phase, the Shut-down and Sectionalization Philosophy, ESD Logic diagram and cause & Effect will be prepared.


Dropped Object Protection

Dropped Object Protection covers the material handling requirements for project facilities. It provides awareness for selection of the proper machinery and complementary gear for restraining and load safety, plus the layout provisions for roads, access, storages and lay down zones, in accordance with the project safety, cost and schedule expectations.
During the design stage, the Dropped Object Protection will be developed.


Hazardous Area Classification

Hazardous Area Classification Schedule establishes the extent of the hazardous areas caused by each individual item of equipment of the facilities, The objectives of this document are to:

  • List the sources of hazardous leaks generated by the equipment on instalations,
  • Classify the potential leak sources,
  • Establish a list for hazardous area classification purposes,
  • Evaluate area classification requirements.

During the design phase, the layout and the schedule of Hazardous Area Classification will be prepared and developed. Hazardous Area Classification will be conducted in following steps:

  • Partition of the installation into hazardous and non hazardous areas by identification of all the potential release sources of flammable products
  • Sub-division of hazardous areas into hazardous zones which shall be ranked according to the estimated probability of the presence of a flammable atmosphere
  • Determination of the hazard radii around each potential source of release
  • Sizing of the hazardous zone around each potential source of release
  • Prepare/modify the hazardous area drawings; draw the envelopes of the zones.


Dispersion Study

Dispersion Study will be carried out to evaluate safety distances by flammable and toxic materials released from various emission sources. All scenarios, for example non-ignited flare, significant gas vents (particularly CO2, H2S) and other continuous emission sources will be determined. The DNV PHAST software will be used for the study.


Flare Radiation Study

Flare Radiation Study will be performed to verify that the maximum allowable radiation limits as per project specification are not exceeded in any unrestricted areas both during emergency and continuous flaring. This calculation is carried out with the input data from PSV sizing, control valve preliminary sizing and the plot plans using FLARESIM.
During the design stage, PMC OilPro will meet project requirements.


Layout Philosophy  

The layouts shall be based on the following principles:

  • Meteorological and geographical factors are considered to locate the facilities, such as prevailing winds, slope, subsidence, flooding, sand storm, etc.,
  • Existing infrastructure close to the facilities, i.e. road, oasis, village, will be taken into account,
  • Flares and vents will be positioned with regard to prevailing winds so as to minimise the risk of gas clouds drifting towards the process installation and radiation on equipments,
  • Hazardous areas will be separated from non-hazardous,
  • All vital (e.g. ATEX certified telecom equipment in hazardous area) and essential equipment / building (e.g. EDG, Fire water, CCR, offices, workshops, etc.) will be positioned away from the potential hazardous sources, precisely outside the restricted area for offices, fire water and workshop.  
  • Location of units will be based on safety distance requirements in order to prevent ignition by separating, as far as practicable from hazardous sources,
  • Minimise the consequences of fires, explosions and other hazard,
  • Prevent escalation of fire to other areas; minimise hydrocarbon inventory in areas where fire initiated (isolation),
  • Focus active fire-fighting to one single zone and improving the emergency response, by containing the risk within the boundaries of the installation.
  • Protect personnel from fire and explosion in the escape routes to a safe area,
  • Ensure the safety of public that may be present, either permanently or just passing by, in the vicinity of production facilities. ​​
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