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Hazard Identification Study (HAZID)

The HAZID studies will be conducted during the FEED phase.  During the early phase of the detailed engineering,  A facilitator will be assigned from PMC OilPro, and the lead safety engineer will coordinate the arrangements for the sessions, including schedules and procedures, with the Engineering Manager and HSE Manager. The methodology, checklists and software to be used will be specified in the HAZID procedure. HAZID session will review non-process hazards and process hazards (hazards associated with unplanned releases). In particular, the following aspects will be systematically reviewed: 

  • Impact of the facility to its surroundings and the surroundings to the facility 
  • Interference between main units 
  • Location/orientation of plant and equipment 
  • Unplanned releases for isolatable sections or units 
  • Environmental hazards and natural hazards. 

A complete HAZID study report will be issued with recommendations addressed for further actions. The status of the recommendations will be updated by disciplines in charge and closeout reported will be issued to Company. 

Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Study

HAZOP Study review will be performed when the P&IDs have reached the appropriate stage of development upon precedence of mutual agreement between Company and PMC OilPro on that stage. The HAZOP study will be guided and documented with appropriate software (e.g. PHA Pro). A worksheet will be loaded ahead of each meeting and set up for recording of the HAZOP team’s discussions.  A complete HAZOP study report will be issued with recommendations addressed for further actions. The status of the recommendations will be updated by disciplines in charge and closeout reported will be issued to Company.

Safety Integrity Level (SIL) 

Safety Integrity Level (SIL) is defined as a discrete level for specifying the safety requirements of the safety functions to be allocated to safety-related systems, where safety integrity level 4 has the highest level of integrity and safety integrity level 1 has the lowest (PMC OilPro avoid the use of SIL4 and require the hazard to be addressed by redesign instead).
SIL assessment will be performed right after HAZOP review by facilitator provided by PMC OilPro. SIL assessment will consider automatically operated loops only including the following elements: sensors, logic solvers and final elements. The activity will be carried out in accordance with the classification methods described in IEC 61511 and IEC 61508. Details of the methods will be stated in the SIL assessment procedure. PMC OilPro instrumentation team will conduct SIL verification by algebraic calculation after SIL assessment to make sure that the design meets the SIL requirement. ​

Preliminary Risk Assessment (PRA)

The objective of Preliminary Risk Assessment (PRA) is to list major scenarios to be studied in detailed risk analysis. The risks associated with scenario hazard outcomes to human, 

environment and assets are screened with respect to damage frequency and severity categories using the risk screening matrix. 

PRA will be performed following the steps and the methodologies: 

  • Hazard Scenarios development
  • Frequency of central critical events
  • Consequence of scenario hazard outcome (modeling by PHAST)
  • Frequencies of hazard outcome without risk reduction measures
  • Severity level of damage (human, environment and asset)
  • Reporting lists of major scenarios
  • Parts count to be updated for all scenarios once all P&ID are finalized as Approved for design. 
  • Events and outcomes frequencies to be updated using Event Trees methodology. Updated frequencies will be allowed to classify scenario for PRA. 

Detail Risk Assessment (DRA)

Detail Risk Assessment (DRA) will be performed at the early stage of engineering phase using AFD P&ID after PRA forms an important part of the decision making around the acceptability of risk of the project. The objective of the detailed risk assessment (DRA) of scenarios is to confirm the risk associated with major scenarios by accounting for the following:
Quantification of the frequency of central critical events and hazard outcomes by taking  into consideration the design safety barriers (such as isolation, blow down, deluge, etc)
Identification of scenarios within Level 1 and Level 2 regions of DRA risk matrix to provide a list of scenarios to be studied in a Risk Reduction Workshop.
Template for documenting Risk Management Sheets (RMS) will be utilized for reporting ALARP demonstration of scenarios associated with major and significant scenarios.  

Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA)

Quantitative Risk Assessment will be performed to provide an estimate of the risk resulting from the operation of facility. This risk may be expressed in terms or probability of serious injury or fatality per year to an individual, risk to groups, or risks to the environment. All scenarios will be defined upon precedence of mutual agreement between company and PMC OilPro. The procedure of the assessment involves a series of specific stages, as follows:

  • Identification of undesired events
  • Analysis of the mechanisms by which undesired events could occur
  • Consideration of the extent of any harmful effects 
  • Consideration of the likelihood of the undesired events and the likelihood of specific detrimental outcomes
  • Judgments on significance of the identified hazards and estimated risks 

Fire and Explosion Risk Analysis (FERA)

A FERA, including a blast overpressure study will be performed to assess the consequences of fire, explosion and gas dispersion hazards arising from accidental releases from the hydrocarbon process. The results of the analysis will be used for plant spacing, to specify mitigation measures for accidental loadings on site buildings and as input to the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This assessment will be carried out and the results will be a part of QRA. The detail is to assess potential risks on the facilities such as jet fire, pool fire, explosion; FERA will be performed including the following: 

  • Credible fire, explosion and gas release scenarios 
  • All targets potentially vulnerable to fire / gas / smoke exposure, 
  • Analyses of the potential for the escalation of fires, 
  • Accidental loads on explosion barriers and accidental drag forces on process equipment, cabling and utility systems, 
  • Precautions and controls necessary to manage the fire and explosion hazards, i.e. potential risk reduction options such as safety distances.
  • Sectionalization – Isolatable process section based on ESDVs and area location and the size of their inventories estimated. 
  • Release modeling - The release rate for small, medium and large hole sizes for every isolatable section, for both liquid and gas scenarios, as appropriate. 
  • Fire modeling - The type (jet, pool, fire) size and duration of fires will be estimated.
  • PFP fire rating requirements for each leak case in each area. 
  • Explosion modeling - The credible design explosion overpressure for equipment (e.g vessels) and piping for an appropriate number of leak scenarios. 
  • Escalation Potential - The impact of the hazards quantified above on structure/Equipment/Escape Routes. 

The DNV PHAST software will be used for consequence modeling such as fire, explosion, radiation.

Risk Reduction Workshop (RRW)
PMC oilPro will organize the RRW to review the risk analysis results.  Attendees of the workshop will be Company’s HSE representative.

Safety Critical Element (SCE) Identification

PMC OilPro will hold a SCE review workshop to identify the safety Critical Element (SCE).  The meeting will be conducted by the Engineering Manager with support of the Lead Safety engineer, and the attendees will be Company representatives, PMC OilPro’s relevant discipline representatives and project engineers.

Identification of Safety Critical Elements (SCEs) will be derived from the major scenarios based on comprehensive assessments. A preliminary list  will be established to allow development of performance standard before procurement is launched. SCE list will be utilized Bow-Tie analysis. The developed SCE list will be established by selecting individual SCEs involved in critical scenarios classified as “disastrous” or “catastrophic”. PMC OilPro will produce and maintain the SCE Register. 

Performance Standard for Safety Critical Elements (SCE)

Performance Standard for Safety Critical Elements will be prepared and issued to Company for review and approval. These are the key technical requirements to be met by SCEs in order to ensure they are effectively operable on demand, they perform as expected and they have some capacity to survive incidents. Performance standards describe the goal of an SCE in its safety critical role and the performance requirements/thresholds (acceptance criteria) the SCE must meet during design and operational life. This plan is for design, operational SCE will be studied during MIEC. Performance standards (PS) include all the controls that are needed to verify SCE integrity together with the minimum performance that should be maintained for each control point. 
Assurance activities (maintenance, inspection and testing) will be put in place to continuously demonstrate that SCEs remain fit for purpose during their whole service life in the framework of MIEC. Performance standards (PS) include all the controls that are needed to verify SCE integrity together with the minimum performance that should be maintained for each control point. Performance Standards should cover three main areas of control:

Functionality – What to control to ensure the equipment fulfills its functions 
Availability, reliability – At what frequency should it be controlled and maintained to meet p erformance/integrity minimum requirements 
Survivability – Does the equipment need to keep its functions during an incident and how to maintain this capacity

As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP)

ALARP demonstration will be performed by EPC365.  A risk register of ALARP demonstration will be prepared during RRW and maintained to ensure that all HSE issues and risks are properly addressed throughout the project.  It involves weighting a risk against the trouble, time and const needed to control it.
ALARP demonstration for blast overpressure protection will be issued at early stage of design to freeze the layout as soon as possible. ALARP Demonstration report is compiled which demonstrates the project has taken all steps necessary to prevent major accidents and to reduce their consequences. It is a facility or operation  specific demonstration of the HSE Management System in action, documenting that risks have been, or will be, reduced to ‘acceptable’ or ‘as low as reasonably practicable’ (ALARP).

RAM Study

The objective of RAM study is to quantify the availability performance in terms of the plant mean availability, the equipment / system criticality, identification of the critical spare equipment items, and the production capacity. 
The RAM study will be carried out according to the following order for the availability analysis:

  • Determination of availability target value for the facilities;
  • Classifying functional subsystems of the plant based on the process flow diagrams (PFD);
  • Development of reliability block diagrams (RBDs);
  • Failure data analysis;
  • Availability modeling and evaluation;
  • System failure analysis for loss of production;
  • Comparison against the availability target value; and 
  • Reporting and recommendation for system configuration.

PMC oilPro will submit a RAM Study Assumptions to Company for review once the first draft of RBD is developed. Company’s comments on the RAM Study Assumptions will be reflected and applied to the study. 

Design HSE Case

A Design HSE Dossier will be prepared to demonstrate that all significant HSE risks have been identified and assessed and will be controlled to a level as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP).   The Design HSE Dossier will contain the facility description, HSE management description, and HSE risk analysis reports and response plans.

The objective of Design Safety Case is to demonstrated: 

  • All hazards, which could give rise to a major incident have been identified and their risk to persons and the Environment have been evaluated, 
  • Measures have been taken either to prevent the hazards occurring or reduce the risks to the persons to as low as reasonably practicable, 
  • Management system governing the design, construction and commissioning is adequate to manage major hazards and associated risks, 
  • Appropriate operation performance standards have been established for the critical measures required and appropriate schemes are in place for verification during operation, 
  • Define arrangements required within the HSSE Management System to be established

Design Safety Case will be developed after finalizing the steps as mentioned above to summarize each action and relevant documents attached.  

HSE Action Tracking Register

An HSE Action Tracking Register will be used by EPC365 to track the status of all HSE Action items arising from the HSE activities stated in the above, such as HAZID, HAZOP, SIL, PRA, DRA, QRA and FERA.

Risk Based Engineering!

Hazard identification, evaluation and risk management is an integral part of the engineering activities and construction planning. EPC365 provides all services related to Risk Based Engineering.

EPC365 Risk Based Engineering services include the HSE studies and reviews relevant to engineering such as but not limted:​

  • SIL
  • PRA,DRA and QRA
  • Risk Reduction Workshop
  • Plant Layout Optimization
  • Escape Route and Safety Equipment Layout
  • Safety Critical Element (SCE) Identification
  • Performance Standards
  • ALARP demonstration
  • Design HSE Case​​


The identification, evaluation and management process is regulated by specific procedures and may vary from project to project, depending on the type of plant, including location, applicable legislation, and the Company’s requirements. 

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